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[Heiser 1990] Domestication of citrus species in various parts of the world. Between the cereals and legumes there is a parallel domestication: wheat, barley, pea, lentil, broad bean, and chick pea in West Asia and Europe; maize and common bean in Central America; ground nut in South America; pearl millet, sorghum, cowpea, and bambara groundnut in Africa; rice and soya bean in China." - - , xviii, 1997, by J. Ancient Egyptian Horticulture and Agriculture 3000 BCE Written manuals for the use of herbs in medicine existed in Mesopotamia (now Iraq) and in China.
Herbal remedies were widely used by the ancient people. 2700 BCE Rhubarb cultivated in China for medicinal purposes.
149 BCE Cato (234-149) wrote on the simple country life. 550 CE Domestication of coffee takes place in Arabia until 800. In the year 2000, coffee imports and exports are second only to oil on the world trade market. I Welcome Your Comments and Suggestions 1593 CE First French botanic garden in Montpellier. 1595 CE Frances Bacon prepares lists of common garden plants. The Dutch take over from the Portuguese in contolling the spice trade in the Indian Ocean.
, by Cato the Elder, emphasizes planting olives and grapes. 560 CE Ono No Imoko, Japanese Buddhist priest and scholar, living by a lake "ikebono", developed an elemental Ikebana flower arrangement style. Floriculture and plant collecting are very popular in England and the Low Countries. 1600 CE European forests are becoming depleted, and shortages of wood effect various industries. Garofalo Gardening History Timeline: From Ancient Times to 1600. January 1, 2003 This document was first distributed on the Internet on January 1, 1999.
Sumerian "Farmer's Almanac." 1495 BCE Queen Hatshepsut of Egypt imports trees from conquered territory in North Africa.
Farming in Ancient Egypt One of the oldest surviving garden plans is for the garden of a court official in Thebes.
Oranges cultivated in India and Tigris River Valley. 5000 BCE Wild pod corn is cultivated in the Tehuacan valley in Mexico. Ancient World Web Index, Ancient Scripts - Web Resources 3700 BCE Uruk period of Sumerian agriculture.
[Baker 1978] Millet grown along the Yellow River (Huang Ho) in China. Domestication of some wild plants by people living in the Mississippi River drainage basin Wine making in Iran. 3500 Egyptian agriculture using extensive irrigation techniques.
The Native people of North America inhabit river flood plains and cultivate crops. 4800 BCE Archeological evidence from Tehuacan in south central Mexico shows that maize, squash, chili peppers, avocados, and amaranth were cultivated. 4000 BCE "As in the case of the cereals, the legumes are amongst the oldest crops cultivated by the human race. Egyptian garden art Cotton growing and cotton textiles quite advanced in India, and reamained so until the 13th century.
Evidence from archeological sites (tools, corprolites) indicates that Homo Sapiens at the end of the Paleolithic period had knowledge of many plants dervied from food gathering techniques.
Different kids of fruits, nuts, and roots were only gathered, not cultivated. 8500 BCE In Mesopotamia, humans raised domesticated goats, sheep, and cereal grains. "Scientists have carried out carbon-14 testing of animal and plant remains and have dated finds of domesticated sheep at 9000 BC in northern Iraq; cattle in the 6th millennium BC in northeastern Iran; goats at 8000 BC in central Iran; pigs at 8000 BC in Thailand and 7000 BC in Thessaly; onagers, or asses, at 7000 BC in Jarmo, Iraq; and horses at 4350 BC in Ukraine." Bio-Tech's History of Agriculture.